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Glossary of Digital Marketing Terms

Digital Glossary

Term Main definition

Hyper Text Markup Language or HTML is a standardised system used to markup text to visual effects within web browsers.

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IP Address

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two main functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing. Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) defines an IP address as a 32-bit number. However, because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the IP address, was standardized in 1998. IPv6 deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s. IP addresses are written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as in IPv4, and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 in IPv6. The size of the routing prefix of the address is designated in CIDR notation by suffixing the address with the number of significant bits, e.g.,, which is equivalent to the historically used subnet mask The IP address space is managed globally by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and by five regional Internet registries (RIRs) responsible in their designated territories for assignment to local Internet registries, such as Internet service providers (ISPs), and other end users. IPv4 addresses were distributed by IANA to the RIRs in blocks of approximately 16.8 million addresses each, but have been exhausted at the IANA level since 2011. Only one of the RIRs still has a supply for local assignments in Africa. Some IPv4 addresses are reserved for private networks and are not globally unique. Network administrators assign an IP address to each device connected to a network. Such assignments may be on a static (fixed or permanent) or dynamic basis, depending on network practices and software features.

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Synonyms - Internet Protocol Address

A widely used Open Source Content Management system. Joomla is very popular for websites with increased functionally allowing for a greater level of functionality and security.

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Keystroke logging, often referred to as keylogging or keyboard capturing, is the action of recording (logging) the keys struck on a keyboard, typically covertly, so that person using the keyboard is unaware that their actions are being monitored. Data can then be retrieved by the person operating the logging program. A keystroke recorder or keylogger can be either software or hardware. While the programs themselves are legal, with many of them being designed to allow employers to oversee the use of their computers, keyloggers are most often used for stealing passwords and other confidential information.Keylogging can also be used to study keystroke dynamics or human-computer interaction. Numerous keylogging methods exist: they range from hardware and software-based approaches to acoustic cryptanalysis.

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Synonyms - Keystroke Logging
In computer networking, localhost is a hostname that refers to the current computer used to access it. It is used to access the network services that are running on the host via the loopback network interface. Using the loopback interface bypasses any local network interface hardware.
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Synonyms - Access host
MAC address

A media access control address (MAC address) is a unique identifier assigned to a network interface controller (NIC) for use as a network address in communications within a network segment. This use is common in most IEEE 802 networking technologies, including Ethernet, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth. Within the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network model, MAC addresses are used in the medium access control protocol sublayer of the data link layer. As typically represented, MAC addresses are recognizable as six groups of two hexadecimal digits, separated by hyphens, colons, or without a separator. MAC addresses are primarily assigned by device manufacturers, and are therefore often referred to as the burned-in address, or as an Ethernet hardware address, hardware address, or physical address. Each address can be stored in hardware, such as the card's read-only memory, or by a firmware mechanism. Many network interfaces, however, support changing their MAC address. The address typically includes a manufacturer's organizationally unique identifier (OUI). MAC addresses are formed according to the principles of two numbering spaces based on Extended Unique Identifiers (EUI) managed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE): EUI-48, which replaces the obsolete term MAC-48, and EUI-64.Network nodes with multiple network interfaces, such as routers and multilayer switches, must have a unique MAC address for each NIC in the same network. However, two NICs connected to two different networks can share the same MAC address.

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Synonyms - Media Access Control Address

Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server, client, or computer network (by contrast, software that causes unintentional harm due to some deficiency is typically described as a software bug). A wide variety of malware types exist, including computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, rogue software, wiper and scareware. Programs are also considered malware if they secretly act against the interests of the computer user. For example, at one point Sony music Compact discs silently installed a rootkit on purchasers' computers with the intention of preventing illicit copying, but which also reported on users' listening habits, and unintentionally created extra security vulnerabilities. A range of antivirus software, firewalls and other strategies are used to help protect against the introduction of malware, to help detect it if it is already present, and to recover from malware-associated malicious activity and attacks.

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Synonyms - Malicious Software
Name Server

A name server refers to the server component of the Domain Name System (DNS), one of the two principal namespaces of the Internet. The most important function of DNS servers is the translation (resolution) of human-memorable domain names ( and hostnames into the corresponding numeric Internet Protocol (IP) addresses (, the second principal name space of the Internet which is used to identify and locate computer systems and resources on the Internet. Although it is typically used in reference to DNS, the term name server may also be used for any computer application that implements a network service for providing responses to queries against a directory service which translates an often humanly meaningful, text-based identifier to a system-internal, often numeric identification or addressing component. This service is performed by the server in response to a service protocol request.

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Stands for "Network Attached Storage." A typical computer stores data using internal and external hard drives. If the computer is connected to a network, it can share data on its connected hard drives with other systems on the network. While this allows multiple computers to send data back and forth, it requires that each computer share its files individually. Therefore, if a computer is turned off or disconnected from the network, its files will not be available to the other systems.

By using NAS, computers can store and access data using a centralized storage location. Instead of each computer sharing its own files, the shared data is stored on a single NAS server. This provides a simpler and more reliable way of sharing files on a network. Once an NAS server connected to a network (typically via Ethernet), it can be configured to share files with multiple computers on the network. It may allow access to all systems or may provide access to a limited number of authenticated machines.

NAS servers typically contain multiple hard drives, providing a large amount of shared disk space for connected systems to save data. They are often used in business networks, but have become increasing more common in home networks as well. Since NAS uses a centralized storage device, it can be a simple way for family members to share and backup their data.

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Synonyms - Network Attached Storage
Open Source

Open source is a source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. It most commonly refers to the open-source model, in which open-source software or other products are released under an open-source license as part of the open-source-software movement. Use of the term originated with software, but has expanded beyond the software sector to cover other open content and forms of open collaboration.

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Free image website

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Plug-in, plug in or plugin may refer to: Plug-in (computing), a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing computer program.

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Synonyms - Component

PR, or PageRanking algorithm, was devised by Google to rank websites in search engine results.

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Synonyms - PageRank
Query By Example

Query by Example (QBE) is a database query language for relational databases. It was devised by Moshé M. Zloof at IBM Research during the mid-1970s, in parallel to the development of SQL. It is the first graphical query language, using visual tables where the user would enter commands, example elements and conditions. Many graphical front-ends for databases use the ideas from QBE today. Originally limited only for the purpose of retrieving data, QBE was later extended to allow other operations, such as inserts, deletes and updates, as well as creation of temporary tables. The motivation behind QBE is that a parser can convert the user's actions into statements expressed in a database manipulation language, such as SQL. Behind the scenes, it is this statement that is actually executed. A suitably comprehensive front-end can minimize the burden on the user to remember the finer details of SQL, and it is easier and more productive for end-users (and even programmers) to select tables and columns by selecting them rather than typing in their names. In the context of information retrieval, QBE has a somewhat different meaning. The user can submit a document, or several documents, and ask for "similar" documents to be retrieved from a document database [see search by multiple examples]. Similarity search is based comparing document vectors (see Vector Space Model). QBE is a seminal work in end-user development, frequently cited in research papers as an early example of this topic. Currently, QBE is supported in several relational database front ends, notably Microsoft Access, which implements "Visual Query by Example", as well as Microsoft SQL Server Enterprise Manager. It is also implemented in several object-oriented databases (e.g. in db4o). QBE is based on the logical formalism called tableau query, although QBE adds some extensions to that, much like SQL is based on the relational algebra.

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Synonyms - QBE
Responsive Web Design

Responsive web design (RWD) is an approach to web design that makes web pages render well on a variety of devices and window or screen sizes. Recent work also considers the viewer proximity as part of the viewing context as an extension for RWD. Content, design and performance are necessary across all devices to ensure usability and satisfaction.A site designed with RWD adapts the layout to the viewing environment by using fluid, proportion-based grids, flexible images, and CSS3 media queries, an extension of the @media rule, in the following ways: The fluid grid concept calls for page element sizing to be in relative units like percentages, rather than absolute units like pixels or points. Flexible images are also sized in relative units, so as to prevent them from displaying outside their containing element. Media queries allow the page to use different CSS style rules based on characteristics of the device the site is being displayed on, e.g. width of the rendering surface (browser window width or a physical display size). Responsive layouts automatically adjust and adapt to any device screen size, whether it is a desktop, a laptop, a tablet, or a mobile phone.Responsive web design has become more important as the amount of mobile traffic has come to account for more than half of total internet traffic. In 2015, for instance, Google announced Mobilegeddon and started to boost the ratings of mobile-friendly sites if the search was made from a mobile device. Responsive web design is an example of user interface plasticity.

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Synonyms - RWD